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Utopia Britannica

British Utopian Experiments 1325 - 1945

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International communities

The communities appearing in this section were either set up by British emigrants, or inspired by individuals or movements from the British Isles.

Leiden. 1609 - 1620
Holland
Temporary home of the Scrooby Separatists. Poverty and impending war made them plan to sail to Virginia, after considering South America & New Amsterdam.
REF: www.plimoth.org/library/holland.htm

Jacobopolis 1622 - 24
USA
Henry Jacob left for the American Colonies, and established his new religious community of Jacobopolis in Virginia. Jacob died there in 1624.
REF: Website

Mennonite Colony 1663
Delaware, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: P.C. Plockhoy
Peter Cornelius Plockhoy had come to England during the years of the Commonwealth and published a pamphlet:
A Way Propounded to make the Poor in These and Other Nations Happy, by Bringing Together Suitable and Well Qualifed People unto One Household Government, or Little-Common-Wealth. Finding no takers for his scheme he returned to Holland and obtained a contract to establish a colony of Mennonites in New Netherlands. The settlement was established at what is now Lewes, Delaware. However in 1664 the English conquered New Netherlands and in the process plundered "what belonged to the Quaking Society of Plockhoy to a very naile."
REF: Backwoods Utopias. A. Bestor

Radnor Quaker Settlement
C1680 USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Richard Davies
Richard Davies, a hatter & 'Publick Friend' from Welshpool bought 5000 acres of the 'Welsh Tract' in Pennsylvania, divided it into smaller lots and sold it to the Welsh Quakers. The land produced abundant crops compared to Wales - a meeting house was built in 1717 and the local town was named Radnor.
REF:Friends in Radnorshire. MacPherson Verzon Books
.

The Philadelphians1697-1706
Germany
FOUNDER/LEADER: Eva von Buttlar
Community inspired by the ideas of the English mystics Jane Leade and John Pordage. Eva and two of her adherents claimed to be the representatives of the earthly triad, Joseph, Mary, and Jesus. Furthermore, Eva herself professed to be the second Eve as Jesus Himself was the second Adam. In her society there was to be a complete community of goods, and, in addition to this, unlimited sexual intercourse between its members.
REF: The Behmenists and the Philadelphians. Nils Thune .Uspala, 1948

Charlotta (Charlotia or Rollestown) 1764-1768
British East Florida USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Denys Rolle
80,000 acre settlement named after George 111's wife founded by wealthy autocratic Englishman Denys Rolle as an 'ideal society' where the poor and downtrodden could work off their 'debt to society'. Rolles brought prostitutes pickpockets and paupers from England to populate his utopian community. This motley crew of settlers eventually rebelled against Rolle's dictatorial leadership and deserted the experiment. They were replaced by black slaves, but Rolle was unable to make the plantation work as a commercial scheme and he was last seen repeating his failure on the island of Exuma in the Bahama Islands.

REF: Denys Rolle and Rollestown, A Pioneer for Utopia by Carita Doggett Corse, Florida Historical Society Quarterly, October 1928.
Charlotta :The Failed Utopia Theresa Ann White
http://natalee_now.tripod.com/pages/charlotta.html

The Shakers 1774 - present
USA
FOUNDER/LEADER:Mother Ann Lee
First English-speaking sect to establish communal colonies in America. Local converts quickly outnumbered the original immigrants and a network of 18 communities was established. After Mother Ann Lee's death in 1784, she was succeeded as head of the sect by James Whittaker, one of her original English followers. The Shakers were the most successful communal sect in the US eventually going into decline due to their adherence to celibacy.
REF: Backwoods Utopias. A. Bestor

Moravian Settlement 1740?
Savannah, Georgia USA
Moravian group visited by John Wesley.
REF: The Moravian Church in England 1728-1760. C.Podmore.

Pitcairn Island 1790 - present
South Pacific
FOUNDER/LEADER:F. Christian.
Final destination of the mutineers from the Bounty. Here over the years an island commonwealth developed based on a combination of seafaring traditions, Tahitian native culture and Seventh Day Adventism.
REF: Life & Death in Eden.Trevor Lummis. Victor Gollancz 1999

Cambord Castle Late 1700s
France
FOUNDER/LEADER Robert Grubb/ Jean Marsillac.
Quaker-backed application made to establish an industrial, commercial and artistic community, with 80 to 100 workshops. The French Interior Minister was sympathetic. Outbreak of war made the scheme impossible.
REF: Heavens Below

The Dorrellites Late 1790s
USA
FOUNDER/LEADER William Dorrell
Former British army officer, William Dorrell, founded the first vegan commune on the Vermont-Massachusetts. Members of the commune followed a fleshless regimen and wore no clothing that had been made from animal skin, though they did wear woolen shoes. The group were a religious sect that had strong millennial ideas; followers believed that the Second Advent (the second coming of Christ) was at hand, and they were preparing for the new millennium by recreating a utopian paradise in which no animals could be harmed or exploited, which had been the state of nature in the world of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.
The Dorrellites came to grief when Dorrell bragged that his beliefs had made him impervious to pain. One day a skeptical onlooker at one of his lectures decided to put Dorrell’s claim to the test. He mounted the podium and delivered a wellaimed blow at Dorrell’s chin, which floored him. When Dorrell struggled to his feetthe assailant repeated the fisticuffs until Dorrell cried out that he did feel pain and that he had had quite enough. Disillusioned with their leader’s braggadocio (to say nothing of his glass jaw), the Dorrellites disbanded. .
REF: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink

Yverdon C1800 - 1827
Switzerland
FOUNDER/LEADER: J.H.Pestalozzi.
Highly-influential residential 'Free School' run by Swiss educator Heinrich Pestalozzi. The child-centred educational philosophy that he developed, underpins much of the English education system. The mystic, James Pierrepont Greaves taught for a while here and Robert Owen visited. Between them they introduced Pestalozzian ideas to England.
REF:www3.mistral.co.uk/dec/background.htm

Tristan Da Cunha 1816-present
South Atlantic island republic set up after troops were stationed on the island during the Napoleonic wars.
REF: Crisis in Utopia. P. Munch.

New Harmony 1824-27
Indiana, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Robert Owen
Former colony of the German Rappite sect acquired by Owen for his grand experiment in founding the new moral world. Consisted of an entire small town and some 20,000 acres of surrounding land. Fell apart due to splits in the membership and financial instability. Is now a National Historic Landmark.
REF: The Life & Ideas of Robert Owen /Backwoods Utopias

Macluria / Community No 2 1826
Indiana, USA
A Methodist splinter group from New Harmony who objected to Owen's religious views. They set up on 1300 acres of uncleared land two miles from New Harmony. 80 to 150 people lived in 9 log cabins. Collapsed due to internal disagreements.
REF: Backwood Utopias

Feiba-Peveli/CommunityNo 3 1826-28
Indiana, USA
A second splinter from New Harmony. Owen granted the group of English farmers 1400 acres of the best land. The name, Feiba-Peveli, came from a system devised by the architect, Stedman Whitwell, in which latitude and longitude were translated into letters, and pronunciation left to take care of itself. They built timber framed houses & log cabins with the luxury novelty of glass windows. The community made up of experienced farmers outlived New Harmony with the land quietly passing into individual ownership some years later.
REF: Backwoods Utopias

Yellow Springs. 1825
Greene County, Ohio, USA
75 to 100 families were involved in an attempt to emulate New Harmony, including professional and business men as well as farmers and labourers. The community fell apart after dissension caused it to split into factions.
REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

Nashoba 1825-30
Tennessee, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Fanny Wright
Frances Wright, a young Scottish radical, purchased Nashoba, a 2000-acre plantation for a community of negro slaves. The aim was to buy or persuade benevolent masters to donate slaves who would be able to purchase their emancipation and at the same time prepare themselves for freedom by education. Several negro families were acquired by gift and purchase. After a visit to New Harmony Fanny became convinced of the necessity of religious and sexual emancipation. Nashoba then became an experimental, racially integrated community based on Owenite doctrines.
REF: Eve & The New Jerusalem /Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britian & America. / Backwoods Utopias


Franklin Community 1826
Haverstraw, Rockland County, USA
A group of 80 artisans, farmers and intellectuals set up on a 120 acre farm. The leaders were free-thinkers and deists: George Houston who had been jailed in England for publishing blasphemy, Abner Kneeland and Henry A. Fay - shortly to be joined by Robert Jennings from New Harmony. The community lasted for 5 months, ending amidst charges of dishonesty against the managers.
REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

Blue Spring 1826 - 27
Nr Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Inspired by Robert Owen 27 members and their families lived on 325 acres in a group of log houses built in the form of a square, together with stores, granary and school.
REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

The Friendly Association for Mutual Interests 1826 - 29
Kendal (now Massillon), Ohio, USA.
A 2000 acre estate settled by I50 local farmers, mechanics & woollen mill workers in an attempt to emulate Owen's community at New Harmony. The experiment was quietly abandoned after the members came to the conclusion that communitarian life did not benefit them substantially more than an individualised lifestyle.
REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

Maxwell Owenite Colony 1827-8
Canada
FOUNDER/LEADER: Henry Jones
After the collapse of the Orbiston Community a supporter, retired naval officer Henry Jones, gathered a party of Scottish emigrants and sailed for Ontario where they established a new Owenite community.
REF: 'The Toon O'Maxwell - an Owenite Settlement in Lambton City, Ontario. Ontario Hist. Soc. Papers & Records XII (1914) 5-12

Campbellites C1827
Kirtland, Ohio, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER:Rev.A.Campbell
The Disciples of Christ or the Campbellites were founded by Scottish immigrant Alexander Campbell. They believed in the imminence of the second coming of Christ and lived communally holding all things in common. Many of the sect were converted to Mormonism and it was from the Campbellites that Mormon communalism stems.
REF: The Second Coming. J.F.C. Harrison.

The 'Plan' in Mexico 1828
FOUNDER/LEADER: Robert Owen
Following the collapse of New Harmony Owen tried to negotiate with the Mexican government for the concession of a territory 150 miles wide stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific on which to carry out his 'Plan' for a New Moral World. Nothing came of the plan.
REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

Morrisania C1830s
New York, USA
English Owenite B.J.Timms was involved in a number of schemes in New York, the Sylvania Phalanx, a Co-operative Bakery and finally Morrisania - "the first co-operative village," a co-operative land-buying scheme.
REF: The History of Co-operation.

Manchester & Salford Community Company 1834
Owenite society sent 23 members to Cincinnati USA in April 1834 to purchase land for a community.
REF: Co-operation & Owenite Socialist Communities.

Fruitlands 1843-44
Nr Harvard, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER:C.Lane & A.B.Alcott
Short-lived community set up on 90 acre farm by Charles Lane from the Ham Concorduim.
REF: Search for a New Eden

Pottersville C1844
Wisconsin, USA
Community set up by the Potters Union. - see Staffordshire for details.
REF: The Staffordshire Potter. H. Owen

Artistic Sisterhood C1850
Munich
'Associated Home' set up by 3 English women artists, Anna Marie Howitt, Barbara Bodicha & Jane Bortha. They lived communally and shared studio space and pledged to found a "beautiful sisterhood in Art."
REF: Artistic Brotherhoods in the Nineteenth Century.

La Maison des Poetes C1852
Pyrenees, France
Free-love commune founded by Léonone Labilliére who had visited both the Abode of Love & Oniedia communities and found them too repressive & patriarchal. Was an open house for impoverished artists, poets & musicians. Miss Esther Hersey sought sanctuary from the Abode of Love here. Also ran a 'branch' in Paris.
REF: The Temple of Love.

Abramtsevo C1877 - 1890s
Russia
Artists’ colony on the Mamonotov estate, influenced by the ideas of the English Arts & Crafts movement.
REF: The Good & Simple Life.

Fontainebleau C1840 - 1900
France
The Fontainebleau Forest was popular with artists who formed a number of colonies notably at Barbizon & Grez. The Scottish author R.L.Stevenson was resident for a number of years.
REF: The Good & Simple Life.

Brocton 1861
Lake Eyrie, USA.
FOUNDER/LEADER: T.L. Harris
After a lecture tour of Britain Harris gathered a group of followers in Scotland and formed the Brotherhood of the New Life. He established a community at Brocton on a 75 acre farm where his most high profile convert was the English MP L. Oliphant.
REF: Heavens Below / Mdme. Blavatsky’s Baboon.

Haifa 1882-88
Palestine
FOUNDER/LEADER L. Oliphant.
Community from where Laurence Oliphant promoted the colonisation of Palestine and his own blend of Islam & Christianity.
REF: Mdm. Blavatsky's Baboon

Adyar 1882 -
Madras. India
FOUNDER/LEADER: H.P. Blavatsky
Theosophist headquarters established on a large estate bought for the society by a well-wisher at the mouth of the Adyar river. Here in a Mediterranean climate first Mdme. Blavastsky then Annie Besant presided. A large library of Buddhist texts was built up by Col. Olcott.
REF: Mdme Blavatsky’s Baboon/Annie Besant. A.Taylor

Leverville C1911
Belgian Congo / Zaire
Model settlements built for native workers on Lever Brothers Plantations.
REF: Port Sunlight Guide

New Australia / Loma Rouga & Cosme Colony 1892-1905
Paraguay
FOUNDER/LEADER: William Lane
3 colonies set up after would-be settlers had sailed to South America from Australia on the Royal Tar. Offered free land and tax exemption by the Paraguay government, they first set up New Australia, building a series of houses and a large hall in clearings in the forest. They also built a 'cattle ring' for 2500 head of cattle. A second boatload the following year established Loma Rouga. Cosme colony was founded in 1894 as a series of small villages on a grassy plain. In 1897 five parties of new recruits arrived from England bringing numbers up to about 120. All the colonies struggled to survive and eventually the Paraguay government divided the communities into individual holdings.
REF: Heavens Below

Ruskin 1894-1899
Yellow Creek, Tennessee, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: J.A. Wayland
Small town based on the ideas of John Ruskin as put forward in the socialist paper The Coming Nation. Growing to 250 members the town had 75 buildings on 1800 acres inc: school, bakery, cafe, laundry, and workshops. It had a prosperous economy based on agriculture and cottage industry. The "Ruskin Rose" was propagated here.
REF: Designing Utopia. M.H.Lang.

The Roycrofters 1894-1938
East Aurora, nr Buffalo, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Elbert Hubbard
Following a visit to William Morris's workshops & press in England, Hubbard set up an idealised 'mediaeval manor' and workers’ community producing 'mission' furniture, leather & metalwork on a system akin to the Guild & School of Handicrafts. The Roycrofters produced a magazine called The Philistine which brought a much simplified version of the Arts & Crafts philosophy to a wide American audience. They ran a hotel the Roycroft Inn whose motto was - Never mind, people will talk anyway.
REF: Utopian Craftsmen.L.Lambourne

Shanti Kunj - Abode of Peace 1896 -
Benares, India
FOUNDER/LEADER: Annie Besant
Small estate bought as the headquarters of the independent Indian section of the Theosophists. It consisted of a number of small houses, a meeting hall, offices, a printing press and a pharmacy. From here Annie Besant involved herself in the campaign for Indian independence.
REF: Annie Besant. A.Taylor

Cogslea 1897-1961
West Mt., Airy, Philadelphia, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Violet Oakley
Community of women artists supported by the Woodward family who were developing the nearby Garden Suburb of Chestnut Hill. Inspired by a romantic version of the Arts & Crafts aesthetic they produced paintings, murals and stained glass in beautiful local stone houses. The community survived until the members died.
REF: Designing Utopia. M.H.Lang.

Point Loma 1897-1942
California, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER:K. Tingley
Community established on 500 acres when the American Theosophical Society split from the European branch after the death of Madame Blavatsky. The community built large domed 'temples' in which grand theatrical pageants were enacted under a regime known as Raga Yoga. They also carried out research into the cultivation of sub-tropical fruit and implemented an extensive afforestation programme planting a 40 acre forest on the Pacific coast.
REF: California Utopia. E.A. Greenwalt

The United Crafts 1898-1915
Syracuse, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Gustav Stickley
Initially inspired by the simplicity of Shaker furniture Gustav Stickley set up the United Crafts after a visit to Britain were he met C.F.A. Voysey and other Arts & Crafts Designers. The workshops were set up on Guild lines with a profit-sharing scheme for employees. Stickley did not share the antipathy to machines of his British counterparts and designed 'democratic' furniture for ordinary people that was sold mail order. The company also produced the highly-influential Craftsman magazine. A plan to build a model farm and community in New Jersey was cut short when they went bankrupt having invested in an Arts & Crafts skyscraper in New York.
REF: Utopian Craftsmen.L.Lambourne

Wainoni Federative Home. 1898 - 1905
New Zealand
FOUNDER/LEADER: Alexander Bikerton.
An experiment in communal living set up by the Professor of Chemistry at Canterbury College. Bickerton, an English immigrant and one of the founders of the New Zealand Socialist Party, built the main building of his 'Federative Home' in several acres of garden from materials recovered from the Christchurch Exhibition of 1882. About thirty members did all the domestic work co-operatively and most members had outside jobs. The community did however run its own fireworks factory. After the home failed Bikerton turned the property into an amusement park. He died in England in 1928
REF: http://www.takver.com/history/nz/tm/tm04.htm

Darmstadt Artists Colony 1899
Darmstadt, Germany
FOUNDER/LEADER: Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig of Hesse
Inspired by the British Arts & Crafts Movement the Grand Duke of Hesse, an anglophile who had commissioned Baillie Scott and C.R.Ashbee to design interiors for his palace, established a small craft-based community at Darmstadt to realize the ideal of 'Gesamt-kunstwerk'. Joseph Maria Olbrich, the architect of the Sezession building in Vienna, designed houses and studios for most of the original artists. They produced a limited number of beautiful craft products, but relied heavily on subsidies from the local government & the Duke's patronage.
REF: The Arts & Crafts Movement. E.Cumming & W.Kaplan

Arden 1900 - present
Wilmington, Delaware, USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: W.Price / F. Stephens.
Arts & Crafts based community set up on lines of Henry George’s single tax plan. Named after Arden Forest in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Financed by a loan from Joseph Fels. Intention was to show that a community of artists could support themselves producing fine objects for an urban market. Recently celebrated its centenary.
REF: Designing Utopia. M.H.Lang.
www.progress.org/archive/fold146.htm

Rose Valley 1901-1910
Delaware Co., USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: W.Price
Second Arts & Crafts community set up by Price, again funded by Joseph Fels. Had many parallels with Chipping Campden. Set in carefully-restored old buildings the community suffered from divisions between the founder and the mainly foreign-born craftsmen.
REF: Designing Utopia. M.H.Lang.


Byrdcliffe Colony1902 - 1915
Woodstock, New York,
FOUNDER/LEADER: R.R. Whitehead
Arts & Crafts based community set up using an inherited fortune. Ralph Whitehead had been converted to the ideals of John Ruskin at Oxford and later travelled to Italy with Ruskin. A complex of 30 buildings constructed of local materials housed craftsmen invited to try and combine the production of furniture, textiles, pottery and metalwork with callisthenics, drama & music. Their furniture proved too labour-intensive to sell profitably and the whole scheme relied on Whitehead's financial support. Many of the craftsmen only wanted to stay for the summer months and by 1915 it had become a private family estate.
REF: The Arts & Crafts Movement.

Godollo Artists Colony 1903
Hungary
The Godollo Artists Colony came perhaps the closest to fulfilling the artistic and social ideals put forward by Ruskin & Morris. Aladar Korosfoi-Kriesch a leading member of the colony wrote a book entitled On Ruskin and the English Preraphaelites in which he outlined a reforming role for artists in society and the belief that by making and using handcrafted folk objects people's lives could be transformed. By training local young people in weaving, pottery, woodwork and leatherwork in their studios they hoped to give them the means to stay on the land rather than emigrating to the cities or to America. They won international acclaim for their craft/design work based on traditional Hungarian and Transylvanian designs. The community played a key role in the development of indigenous Hungarian design and in fostering the myths and legends that would help forge a national identity for Hungary. They were responsible for an influential five-volume study -The Art of the Hungarian People- on vernacular furnishings and architecture.
REF: The Arts & Crafts Movement.

Phoenix Settlement 1904 - 08
Natal, South Africa
FOUNDER/LEADER: M. K. Gandhi
Community established by Gandhi inspired by a single reading of John Ruskin's Unto This Last.
REF: www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/people/gandhi/bhana.html

Tolstoy Farm 1908 -1914
Transvaal, South Africa
FOUNDER/LEADER: M. K. Gandhi

"Co-operative Commonwealth" set up by Gandhi as headquarters of his non-violent campaign. A mix of 70-80 Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Parsees lived on 1,100 acres of land with 1,000 fruit-bearing trees. 3 large buildings were put up in the first 6 months. One served as women's quarters, another as the men's residence with laundry and kitchen facilities. A third building was a combination of offices, workshop, and school.
REF: www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/people/gandhi/bhana.html

Cites Jardins C1911 - 1930
Paris, France
The Association Francaise des Cites Jardins was formed in 1903 and Garden Cities (Cites Jardins) were built around Paris by private enterprise and local government; Draveil in 1911, Petit Groslay in 1912, and Cite d'Ogremont in the 1930s.
REF: http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Prozorovka C1912
Russia
Vladimir Semionov, a pioneer Russian planner, lived and worked in London (1908-1912). Designed Prozorovka on the Moscow-Kazan railway using the Garden City as a model. Covering an area of 680 hectare, including 170 hectares for an 'outpark', 53 hectares designated for green planted areas within the town, and 335 hectares for housing. It was not completed due to the advent of WW1.
REF:
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Daceyville 1912 -
Sydney, Australia
State funded 'model residential environment' laid out on Garden City lines. A mixture of semi-detached and detached houses with extensive tree planting and private gardens.
REF:
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Hellerau
Germany
Factory village-cum-garden suburb, known as the German Letchworth, established by the industrialist Karl Schmidt. The original plan to build a small town of up to 15,000 inhabitants as a centre for William Morris style craft workshops was scaled down with less than 500 homes and only 4 factories being built.
REF:
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Colonel Light Gardens 1917
Adelaide, South Australia
Garden Suburb development.
REF: Colonel Light Gardens: model garden suburb. Christine Garnaut

The Den-en Toshi Co Ltd 1918
Tokyo, Japan
Japanese Garden City Company developed 150 hectares of land near Tokyo as Garden Suburbs.
REF;
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Abbey of Thelema 1920 -23
Sicily
FOUNDER/LEADER: Aleister Crowley
Archetypal sex & drugs commune set up by the so called 'wickedest man in the world' with a small band of followers. Here in squalid surroundings Crowley carried out his sex magick and occult practices until he was engulfed in scandal following the death of a commune member from gastro-enteritis.
REF: Aleister Crowley: The Beast Demystified. R.Hutchinson.

Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man 1922 -32
Château du Prieuré, Fontainebleau France
FOUNDER/LEADER: G.I. Gurdjieff
Community gathered around the esoteric guru G.I. Gurdjieff. Followers took part in seemingly meaningless arduous tasks in order to ‘wake them up from spiritual sleep.’
REF: G.I. Gurdjief; The War Against Sleep. C.Wilson / www.gurdjieff.org

Rehavia 1922-24
Jerusalem, Israel.
Garden Suburb (Shechunat HaGanim) development designed by Richard Kaufmann on behalf of the Chevrat Hachsharat HaYishuv. The people who built the suburb were a Zionist elite of lawyers, businesspeople, academics, doctors and rabbis.
REF: http://jeru.huji.ac.il/ei21.htm

Sokol 1923
Russia
The Garden City concept survived the Russian Revolution and Sokol Garden City was built just outside Moscow. The designers were Victor Vesnin and Nikolai Markovnikov.
REF; http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Sunnyside Gardens 1924-28
New York, USA
America's first "Garden City" built by the City Housing Corporation to a design by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright. It comprised 76 acres of ground with 1200 homes built around open common gardens.
REF;
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Juan Frenandez Island C1920s Chile
An exiled group of communists were sent to an abandoned penal colony on 'Robinson Crusoe island', and 'invited' to form a communist colony if the spirit so moved them. Six months later they petitioned the Chilean Government for a return to the mainland and pledging to refrain from all agitation. Their request was granted.
REF: Communist and Co-operative Colonies. Charles Gide. 1930

Mariemont C1920s
Ohio, USA
A new town modelled on Letchworth Garden City. Founded by millionaires Mary and Thomas Emery.
REF:
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

Canberra C1920s
Australia
Garden City principles were used for the layout of the city of Canberra and landscaping of the residential areas. One of the city's suburbs is named Letchworth, as a tribute to the world's first Garden City. Canberra has been called a "garden city run mad".
REF:

Yallourn C1920s
Melbourne, Australia.
"Garden Town" for the workers at an open-cast coal mine, laid out on Garden City principles.
REF:
http://www.hmcm.co.uk/letweb/

April Farm Love Colony C1925
Allentown, Pennsylvania,USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Charles Tuller Garland
After giving away a million dollar inheritance, because' no man should have that much money.', Old Etonian and former member of the Warickshire hunt Charles Garland lived in a simple shack on Long Island. After attempting to persuade his wife to try a menage a trois with his mother's secretary - Garland established the April Farm Love Colony, which on Garland arrest in 1925 for indecency had 10 members. At his trial Garland declared that " The relations of men and women were a personal matter and that it was not for government to regulate then, unless the persons concerned diturb the peace and health of the community."

Anarchist Colony C1929
Cooktown, Austraila
Group of anarchists, possibly connected with Whiteway, proposed to set up a colony here.
REF: www.takver.com/history/aia/aia00018

Arizona Abode of Love1930s
Inspired by a visit to the Abode of Love in Somerset, an American photographer set up the Agapemone of America in Arizona. Here he produced the Soul-Babes Handbook which he sent to potential Soul-Babes in Europe encouraging them to come and join him. A number of Swiss women seem to have taken up his offer - they were later accused of using letters home as cover for spying for the Nazis.
REF: Temple of Love.

Franklin Farms C1939
New Jersey.USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: P.D.Ouspensky
On the outbreak of war Ouspensky and a number of his English pupils migrated to a large estate at Mendham, New Jersey. While his wife supervised the pupils carrying out farm and household tasks as part of their psychological training, Ouspensky lectured in New York.
REF: http://www.gurdjieff.org

February House 1940
7 Middagh Street,Brooklyn .USA
Commune of artists and writers brought together by editor of Harper's Bazaar George Davis. Though only short lived its residents included W. H. Auden, Carson McCullers, Jane and Paul Bowles, Benjamin Britten, and Gypsy Rose Lee. And for a while was the 'in' place to be seen for visiting European refugee literati and New York socialites.

REF: http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/

Isla Margarita Bruderhof 1941
Paraguay
Community set up after the Bruderhof were force to flee England during WW2.
REF:http://www.bruderhofmuseum.com/

Trabuco 1942-49
USA
FOUNDER/LEADER: Gerald Heard
'Club for Mystics' 60 miles south of Los Angeles set up by Heard who had moved away from the teachings of Swami Prabhavananda and wished to strike out on his own. He handed the community over to the Swami in 1949.
REF: Mdme. Blavatsky's Baboon.

Faroe Islands 1948 - present
Atlantic Ocean
Islands granted independence by Denmark in 1948. The Faroese have built a thriving island economy implementing policies remarkably similar to those attempted by The Fifth Duke of Argyll on Islay and Lord Leverhulme on Harris/Lewis. They have built up the largest trawler fleet in Scandinavia, pursued a policy of decentralising employment throughout the islands and by the 1980s the Faroe islanders had the highest per capita national product in the world.
REF Scottish Islands. Ian Grimble

'Brando's Pitcairn' 1963
Tahiti
Marlon Brando, who starred as Fletcher Christian in the most famous movie of the Mutiny on the Bounty, not only lived with his Polynesian co-star/on-screen wife and called his first son Christian, but in 1963 bought an atoll of 13 tiny islets some 25 miles from Tahiti. Here he escaped from the pressures of Hollywood to his own south sea island utopia.
REF:Bounty:Beyond the Voyage.

 

 
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